Main Article Content
AIM: Health-care-associated infections (HAI) are a serious patient safety problem. There are effective preventive practices, but little information on adherence in AL-Anbar hospitals. This study aims to identify the practice association of health-care providers (HCPs) in infection prevention with some sociodemographic characteristics.
METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at different three critical areas (critical (or coronary) care unit, respiratory care unit, and intensive care unit) of the three largest hospitals of Fallujah Teaching Hospital, Ramadi Gynecology-Pediatric Hospital, and Ramadi Teaching Hospital in Al-Anbar, Iraq. A prepared questionnaire by the researcher for the study was conducted and involved 9 questions about sociodemographic characteristics and 17 questions about practice characteristics. Chi-square and frequency distribution were used to identify the significance of the variables’ association at the p = 0.05.
RESULTS: Among 67 health-care providers (HCPs) of the present study, the highest proportion involved were at age 25–29 years with 30 (44.8%) with mean ± SD (28.35 ± 6.2), 71.6% of them were male gender, 32 (47%) of them had a diploma degree in education, and their occupation was rotator nurse 28 (41.8%). Nearly half of 31 (46.3%) of HCPs used all available aseptic techniques. Statistically, a significant association was reported between the practice level and aseptic technique using (p = 0.032), respiratory hygiene (p = 0.01), and sharp safety engineering and work practice controls (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of good procedures for HCPs, preferable to make efforts to decrease the minority absence of practice due to little education by continuing training and measurable control on HCPs for better performance in critical areas particularly.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Brooks SK, Greenberg N, Wessely S, Rubin GJ. Factors affecting healthcare workers’ compliance with social and behavioural infection control measures during emerging infectious disease outbreaks: Rapid evidence review. BMJ Open. 2021;11(8):e049857. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049857 PMid:34400459
Mazzeffi M, Galvagno S, Rock C. Prevention of healthcare- associated infections in intensive care unit patients. Anesthesiology. 2021;135(6):1122-31. https://doi.org/10.1097/aln.0000000000004017 PMid:34731244
Yazie TD, Sharew GB, Abebe W. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of healthcare professionals regarding infection prevention at Gondar University referral hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2019;12(1):563. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4605-5 PMid:31500659
Geberemariyam BS, Donka GM, Wordofa B. Assessment of knowledge and practices of healthcare workers towards infection prevention and associated factors in healthcare facilities of West Arsi district, Southeast Ethiopia: A facility-based cross-sectional study. Arch Public Health. 2018;76:69. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-018-0314-0 PMid:30455882
Abalkhail A, Alslamah T. Institutional factors associated with infection prevention and control practices globally during the infectious pandemics in resource-limited settings. Vaccines (Basel). 2022;10(11):1811. https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines10111811 PMid:36366320
Rajan D. Occupational hazards and health: A comparative study among medical laboratory technicians. Int J Res Appl Sci Eng Technol. 2014;2(7):305-15.
Ilo IJ, Uchenwoke CI, Umeh UA, Nwankwo UN, Ede SS, Nwankwo CE. Knowledge and practice of preventive measures for occupational health hazards among nurses working in a teaching hospital in Enugu. Ann Clin Biomed Res. 2022;3:182. https://doi.org/10.4081/acbr.2022.182
Alemayehu R, Ahmed K, Sada O. Assessment of knowledge and practice on infection prevention among health care workers at Dessie referral hospital, Amhara region, South Wollo Zone, North East Ethiopia. J Community Med Health Educ.
Wahed WY, Hefzy EM, Ahmed MI, Hamed NS. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and perception of health care workers regarding COVID-19, A cross-sectional study from Egypt. J Community Health. 2020;45(6):1242-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00882-0 PMid:32638199
Tenna A, Stenehjem EA, Margoles L, Kacha E, Blumberg HM, Kempker RR. Infection control knowledge, attitudes, and practices among healthcare workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34(12):1289-96. https://doi.org/10.1086/673979 PMid:24225614
EASO. Iraq: Key Socio-economic Indicators for Baghdad, Basra, and Erbil. Country of Origin Information Report. European Asylum Support Office; 2020. p. 46. Available from: https://www. ecoi.net/en/file/local/2064472/2021_11_easo_coi_report [Last accessed on 2023 March 02].
Bayleyegn B, Mehari A, Damtie D, Negash M. Knowledge, attitude and practice on hospital-acquired infection prevention and associated factors among healthcare workers at University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Infect Drug Resist. 2021;14:259-66. https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S290992 PMid:33536767
Haguminshuti JC, Safari E, Mochama M, Rutayisire E. Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards infection prevention control among healthcare workers in selected hospitals located in Karongi district, Rwanda. J Public Health Int. 2022;6(1):11-23. https://doi.org/10.14302/issn.2641-4538.jphi-22-4343
Gichuhi AW, Kamau SM, Nyangena E, Otieno-Ayayo ZN. Health care workers adherence to infection prevention practices and control measures: A case of a level four district hospital in Kenya. Am J Nurs Sci. 2015;4(2):39-44. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajns.20150402.13
Yakob E, Lamaro T, Henok A. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards infection control measures among Mizan-Aman general hospital workers, South West Ethiopia. J Community Med Health Educ. 2015;5:370. https://doi.org/10.4172/2161-0711.1000370
Da Silva Gama ZA, Hernández PJ, de Freitas MR, Padoveze MC, de Oliveira Saraiva CO, Paulino LG, et al. Good infection prevention practices in three Brazilian hospitals: Implications for patient safety policies. J Infect Public Health. 2019;12(5):619-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2019.02.016 PMid:30853219
Kim E, Kim SS, Kim S. Effects of infection control education for nursing students using standardized patients vs. peer role- play. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(1):107. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010107 PMid:33375222
Osman FK, El Banna HM, Sharaf AY, Mohammed YF. The effects of educational interventions on nurses’ knowledge and practices in hemodialysis unit regarding infection control practices. Egypt J Hosp Med. 2021;84(1):1739-48. https://doi.org/10.21608/ejhm.2021.176470
Taghrir MH, Borazjani R, Shiraly R. COVID-19 and Iranian medical students; a survey on their related-knowledge, preventive behaviors and risk perception. Arch Iran Med. 2020;23(4):249-54. https://doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.06 PMid:32271598
Nour MO, Babalghith AO, Natto HA, Alawneh SM, Elamin FO.
Raising awareness of health care providers about MERSCoV infection in public hospitals in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J. 2017;23(8):534-42. https://doi.org/10.26719/2017.23.8.534 PMid:29105044
Shigayeva A, Green K, Raboud JM, Henry B, Simor AE, Vearncombe M, et al. Factors associated with critical-care healthcare workers’ adherence to recommended barrier precautions during the Toronto severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28(11):1275-83. https://doi.org/10.1086/521661 PMid:17926279
Ahmed SM, Mohamed AR, Ahmed SM. Effect of educational program about infection control precautions for nurses in pediatric hemodialysis units. Minia Sci Nurs J. 2019;5(1):77-88. https://doi.org/10.21608/msnj.2019.187791