Gender Differences in High-risk CAS through Radial Access

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Danica Petkoska
Biljana Zafirovska
Savetka Paljoskovska-Jordanova
Ivan Vasilev
Marijan Bosevski
Sasko Kedev


AIMS: Transradial (TR) carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been established as an acceptable alternative to carotid endarterectomy, especially in patients with a high risk for surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gender differences of radial access CAS in high-risk patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective analysis which included 54 consecutive patients in the period from December 2020 to January 2022. According to the Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy study for high-risk CAS, patients with at least one anatomic or comorbid factor associated with increased surgical risk were included in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups according to sex. Follow-up assessments included neurological exams, 12-lead electrocardiogram, and duplex ultrasound (DUS). The primary endpoint was 30-day composite rate of stroke, death, and myocardial infarction. Secondary endpoints included procedure success, access site complications according to Early Discharge after TR Stenting of Coronary Arteries (EASY) score classification, target lesion revascularization, and in-stent restenosis evaluated with DUS.

RESULTS: The study population was predominantly male 37 (61.1%) and females were 17 (38.9%). Mean age in the women group was 64.4 ± 7.43 years, and in men, it was 69.1 ± 8.01 years (p = 0.0223). From risk factors for coronary artery disease, hypertension and smoking were more frequent in the male group and hyperlipidemia and diabetes in the female group. Most of the male patients were symptomatic compared to the female group (p = 0.0151). Procedural success was obtained in all cases. Transient vasospasm induced by the distal protection device was present in one male patient. No 30-day major adverse events were recorded between the two groups. Minor access site bleeding complications according to EASY score (Easy type 1) were recorded in 4 patients (3 males vs. 1 female). There were no cases of hand ischemia after procedure or follow-up. None of the patients had in-stent restenosis >70% on DUS during 1-year follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Results from this study demonstrate no gender-related differences in radial access CAS for high-risk patients.


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Petkoska D, Zafirovska B, Paljoskovska-Jordanova S, Vasilev I, Bosevski M, Kedev S. Gender Differences in High-risk CAS through Radial Access. SEE J Cardiol [Internet]. 2023 Apr. 3 [cited 2023 Dec. 2];4(1):1-6. Available from:
Interventional Cardiology


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